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Table of Contents

Quick Start Guide for Installing Your Cisco 1760 Modular Access Router

Quick Start Guide for Installing Your Cisco 1760 Modular Access Router

This document describes the hardware installation and software configuration steps necessary to install your Cisco 1760 modular access router with its complement of WAN interface cards (WICs) and voice interface cards (VICs). It contains the following sections:

Unpacking the Router

Figure 1 shows the items that come with your router. All the items are in the accessory kit that is inside the box that your router came in.


Figure 1:
Router Box Contents


Mounting the Router in a Rack


Warning To prevent bodily injury when mounting or servicing this unit in a rack, you must take special precautions to ensure that the system remains stable. The following guidelines are provided to ensure your safety:

The rack-mounting brackets supplied with the router can be attached to a 19- or 24-inch rack. Figure 2 shows the bracket mounting points that attach to the rack.


Figure 2: Bracket Mounting Points




To install the router in a 19-inch or a 24-inch standard rack, follow the instructions described in these procedures:

Attaching Brackets to the Router

The bracket orientation and the screws you use depend on whether you are attaching the brackets for a 19-inch or a 24-inch rack. Use two of the supplied screws to attach each bracket, according to the following guidelines:

Figure 3 shows how to attach brackets to the two sides of the router with the front panel forward.


Figure 3: Attaching Brackets for 19- and 24-Inch Racks



Attaching Brackets to the Rack

After the brackets are attached to the router, use the four supplied number-12 Phillips machine screws to securely attach the brackets to the rack, as shown in Figure 4.


Caution   Make sure that the fans on the side of the chassis are not blocked.


Figure 4: Attaching Brackets to the Rack


Attaching the Optional Cable Guide

Cisco recommends attaching the cable guide to prevent the cables from obscuring the front panel of the router and the other devices installed in the rack. If the router is in a 19-inch or 24-inch rack, use the supplied black screw, as shown in Figure 5, to attach the cable guide to the left or right bracket.


Figure 5: Attaching the Cable Guide to the Router


Connecting Power

Read the following warnings before connecting the power to the router.


Warning The power supply is designed to work with TN power systems.


Warning This product relies on the building's installation for short-circuit (overcurrent) protection. Ensure that a fuse or circuit breaker no larger than 120VAC, 15A U.S. (240VAC, 16A international) is used on the phase conductors (all current-carrying conductors).


Warning This equipment needs to be grounded. Use a green-and-yellow 14 AWG ground wire to connect the host to earth ground during normal use.


Warning When installing the unit, always make the ground connection first and disconnect it last.


Warning Never defeat the ground conductor or operate the equipment in the absence of a suitably installed ground conductor. Contact the appropriate electrical inspection authority or an electrician if you are uncertain that suitable grounding is available.

Follow these steps to connect power to the router and to turn the router on:


Step 1   Connect the separate power
cord to the power socket on the rear panel, as shown in Figure 6.


Figure 6: Connecting the Power Supply


Step 2   Connect the other end of the separate power cord to a power outlet.

Step 3   Turn the power switch to on ( | ).

Step 4   Confirm that the router has power by checking that the PWR LED on the front panel is on.


Connecting the Router to Your Local Network

The router is connected to your local Ethernet network through the yellow 10/100 Ethernet port. You must provide the following items for this connection:


Warning The ports labeled 10/100-Mbps Ethernet port and Console port are safety extra-low voltage (SELV) circuits. SELV circuits should only be connected to other SELV circuits. Because BRI circuits are treated like telephone-network voltage, avoid connecting the SELV circuits to the telephone network voltage (TNV) circuits. (To see translated versions of this warning, refer to the Regulatory Compliance and Safety Information for Cisco 1700 Routers document that came with the router.)


Caution   Always connect the Ethernet cable to the yellow ports on the router. Do not connect the cable to an ISDN S/T or U port on a WIC or to an NT1 that is connected to a WIC. Accidentally connecting the cable to the wrong port can damage your router.

Follow these steps to connect the router to your local network:


Step 1   Connect on
e end of the Ethernet cable to the yellow Ethernet port (labeled 10/100-Mbps Ethernet port), as shown in Figure 7.


Figure 7: Connecting the Router to the Local Network


1

10/100 Ethernet port

3

Straight-through Ethernet cable

2

Ethernet hub or switch

Step 2   Connect the other end of the Ethernet cable to a network port on the hub or switch.


Installing WIC/VIC Cards

The router has four card slots that hold Cisco WICs and VICs. Either one or two WICs may be installed, with the remaining slots holding VICs, as desired. If no WICs are present in the slots, up to four VICs may be installed. Each WIC has one or two WAN ports, and each VIC has two or more voice ports. This section describes the procedure for installing a WIC or a VIC in the router.


Note   For details on specific WICs and VICs, on how to connect a WIC to the WAN line or a VIC to the telephone and fax line, and on how to configure the interface with Cisco IOS software, refer to the Cisco WAN Interface Cards Hardware Installation Guide that came with the cards.

Safety Information

This section lists safety warnings that you should be aware of before installing WICs or VICs in the router. To see translated versions of these warnings, refer to the Regulatory Compliance and Safety Information for the Cisco 1700 Routers document that came with the router.


Warning Before working on a system that has an on/off switch, turn off the power and unplug the power cord.


Warning Only trained and qualified personnel should be allowed to install or replace this equipment.


Warning Before working on equipment that is connected to power lines, remove jewelry (including rings, necklaces, and watches). Metal objects will heat up when connected to power and ground and can cause serious burns or weld the metal object to the terminals.


Warning Before opening the chassis, disconnect the telephone-network cables (from the card) to avoid contact with the telephone-network voltages.


Warning Do not work on the system or connect or disconnect cables during periods of lightning activity.


Caution    Do not connect a WAN, telephone or fax cable to the card until you have completed the installation procedure.

Card Installation

Follow these steps to insert a card in the router:


Step 1   Make sure the router is turned off and is disconnected from AC power.


Caution   Power must be removed from the system prior to installing or removing WICs or VICs to avoid damaging them. When WICs or VICs are pushed into or pulled out of a router that is powered up, there is a very good chance that they could be damaged electrically and will no longer function.

Step 2   Loosen the thumbscrews on the WIC or VIC slot cover, as shown in Figure 8.


Figure 8: Removing a WIC or VIC Slot Cover


You should be able to loosen the screws using your fingers; however, if the screws are very tight, you may need to use a Phillips screwdriver.

Step 3   Remove the metal plate that covers the card slot.

Step 4   Hold the card by the edges on either side of the card front panel, and line up the card edges with the guides inside the card slot, as shown in Figure 9.


Figure 9: Inserting a WIC or VIC in the Router


1

Interface Card

2

Guides

Step 5   Insert the card in the slot, and gently push it into the router until the front panel of the card is flush with the router.

Step 6   Tighten the screws that are on the card.


Voice Port Verification

When the router is connected to a PC and you are running the command-line interface, as described in the "Connecting a PC" section, you can enter the show voice port command to identify the port numbers of voice interfaces installed in your router:

Router# show voice port slot-number/port-number

 

As an example of voice port numbering, if you install VICs in both slot 1 and slot 2 of the router, the ports in each of these slots would be numbered as follows:

Slot 1—1/0 and 1/1

Slot 2—2/0 and 2/1

Figure 10 shows the Cisco 1760 router front panel and slot numbering.


Figure 10: Cisco 1760 Router Front Panel


1

WIC/VIC Slot 0

9

Ethernet Port

2

WIC/VIC Slot 1

10

Ethernet LEDs

3

Console Port

11

Slot 1 LEDs

4

VIC Slot 2

12

Slot 0 LEDs

5

VIC Slot 3

13

MOD OK LED

6

Slot 3 LEDs

14

PVDM 0/1 OK LEDs

7

Slot 2 LEDs

15

Router OK LED

8

Auxiliary Port

16

Power LED

Verifying Your Router Installation

You can verify that you have correctly installed the router by checking the following LEDs:

Configuring the Router

The following sections explain how to set up basic configurations:

Getting Started

These sections describe the audience for this guide and the conventions used herein. They also identify related documentation and tell how to access electronic documentation.

Audience

This section is intended primarily for users who configure and maintain routers, but are not necessarily familiar with tasks, the relationship between tasks, or the commands necessary to perform particular tasks. We assume that you are familiar with Cisco IOS software, IP and telephony networks, and PBX operations.

Conventions

This document uses the following conventions:

Information for International Users

International users must set the values of certain voice-port commands, such as cptone, that are specific to their country. Refer to the Cisco 1751 Router Software Configuration Guide, available on the Documentation CD-ROM and on Cisco.com, for details.

Related Documentation

The following publications provide related information on this product:

Additional Information

Cisco documentation and additional literature are available in a CD-ROM package, which ships with your product. The Documentation CD-ROM, a member of the Cisco Connection Family, is updated monthly, and may be more current than printed documentation. You can also read Cisco documentation on the World Wide Web. For information about Cisco documentation, see the "Obtaining Documentation" section of this guide.

If you have questions or need help, see the section "Obtaining Technical Assistance" at the end of this guide for further information.

Configuration Tools

You can configure the router by using the Cisco IOS CLI.

To configure your router from the CLI, see this guide, or refer to the Cisco 1700 Series Software Configuration Guide or the Cisco 1751 Router Software Configuration Guide, both of which are available on the Documentation CD-ROM.

Connecting a PC

If you want to configure the router through the CLI, you must connect the router console port to a terminal or PC. The cable and adapter required for this connection are included with the router.

To configure the router using CLI commands from a PC, the PC must have some type of terminal emulation software installed. The software should be configured with the following parameters: 9600 baud, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, no flow control. Refer to the Cisco 1700 Router Software Configuration Guide for detailed information about configuring the router using Cisco IOS software.

Follow these steps to connect the router to a terminal or PC:


Step 1  
Connect the light blue console cable to the blue console port on the router, as shown in Figure 11.


Figure 11: Connecting the Console Cable to the Router


1

Blue console port

3

Light blue console cable

2

To PC or terminal

Step 2   Use the console adapter to connect the other end of the cable to the terminal or PC. If your terminal or PC has a console port that does not fit the adapter included with the router, you must provide the correct adapter for that port.


Major Configuration Tasks

Follow these major steps to configure Voice over IP (VoIP) on your router:


Step 1   Begin by configuring your IP network to support real-time voice traffic. Before you move to the next step, ping any remote routers on your network to make sure you have IP connections.

Step 2   Configure your router to support voice ports. Refer to the Cisco 1751 Router Software Configuration Guide for instructions. The router supports five types of voice ports:

The default voice-port values are usually adequate for both FXS and FXO voice ports. However, if you need to change the default values, refer to the Cisco 1751 Router Software Configuration Guide.

The default values for an E&M voice port are not sufficient to enable voice and data transmission over the IP network. E&M values must match those of the connected private branch exchange (PBX) device. Refer to the Cisco 1751 Router Software Configuration Guide.

The default values for a Basic Rate Interface (BRI) port are not sufficient to enable voice and data transmission over the IP network. BRI values must match those of the connected PBX device. See the BRI configuration guide, Configuring the Voice Interface Card for the Cisco 1751 Router.

Step 3   Enter configuration mode to configure your router for VoIP traffic. See the "Entering Configuration Mode" section, and the "Configuring the Fast Ethernet Interface" section.

Step 4   Save the configuration. See the "Saving the Configuration" section.

Step 5   Establish a dial plan to determine how the call can be routed. Use the dial-peer voice command to define dial peers and to implement the dial plan. See the "Configuring a Dial Plan" section.

Step 6   Fine-tune your network to adequately support VoIP by configuring a series of protocols and features for quality of service (QoS). See the "Configuring Quality of Service" section.


Entering Configuration Mode

You can configure your router for VoIP by entering commands at the CLI. This is called configuration mode.


Note   VoIP requires one of the IP/Plus/Voice feature sets from IOS Release 12.2(2)XK, or later.

Follow these steps to enter configuration mode:


Step 1   Connect a terminal or PC to the router.

Step 2   Power on the router.

Step 3   If the current configuration is no longer valid (for instance, because you added an interface), after about 1 minute you will see the following prompt:

Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes]: 
 

Do not use the yes default. You need to enter no to enter the normal operating mode of the router.

Step 4   At the user EXEC prompt (Router>), enter enable and the password to enter enable mode:

Router> enable

Password:
 

Configuration changes can be made only in enable mode. The prompt changes to the privileged EXEC (enable) prompt (Router#):

Router#
 

Step 5   Enter global configuration mode:

Router# config terminal

Router(config)#
 

Step 6   If you have not configured the router before or if you want to change the configuration, you need to configure global parameters, passwords, network management, and routing protocols. In this example, IP routing, AppleTalk routing, and IPX routing are all enabled:

Router(config)# ip routing

Router(config)# appletalk routing

Router(config)# ipx routing

 

For complete information about the global configuration commands and about configuring LAN and WAN interfaces on your router, refer to the Cisco IOS configuration guides and command references.

The rest of this guide explains how to configure your router for VoIP traffic.


Note   Voice configuration uses a number of Cisco IOS commands. For complete information about these commands, refer to the Cisco 1751 Router Software Configuration Guide. You can also enter a question mark after a command or partial command at the Router(config)# prompt to get syntax and argument help.


Note   At any point, you can see the operating configuration, including changes you just made, by entering the show running-config command. To enter this command, you have to exit from configuration mode by pressing Ctrl-Z or entering the end global configuration command.

Saving the Configuration

You must save the new configuration to nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) periodically during the configuration process and also when you finish configuring the router.

Cisco IOS software uses two configuration files—startup-config and running-config. The startup-config file is a backup file that has all the information you specified about the router interfaces. The startup-config file is used by the router on the next restart. The running-config file has the current operating configuration with the changes you have just made. You can make any changes to the running-config file; however, these changes will be lost when the router powers down. To make these changes permanent, copy the running-config file to the startup-config file stored in NVRAM.

Follow these steps for each router to write the new configuration to NVRAM:


Step 1   Exit configuration mode, and return to the enable prompt by pressing Ctrl-Z or entering the end global configuration command.

Step 2   To see the startup configuration stored in NVRAM, enter the following command:

Router# show startup-config

 

Step 3   To see the operating configuration, including any changes you have just made, enter the following command:

Router# show running-config

 

Step 4   To write your changes to NVRAM and make them permanent, enter the following command:

Router# copy running-config startup-config

Building configuration. . .
[OK]
Router# 
 

The router is now configured to start in the new configuration.


Configuring the Fast Ethernet Interface

To configure the Fast Ethernet interface, follow these steps, beginning in global configuration mode:

Command Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config)# interface 
fastethernet 0/0

Enter configuration mode for the Fast Ethernet interface.

Step 2 

Router(config-if)# ip address 
20.20.20.20 255.255.255.0

Set the IP address and subnet mask for the Fast Ethernet interface.

Step 3 

Router(config-if)# no shutdown

Enable the Fast Ethernet interface.

Step 4 

Router(config-if)# exit

Exit configuration modefor the Fast Ethernet interface.

Configuring a Dial Plan

Use a dial plan to map the destination telephone numbers with the voice ports on the router. In North America, the North American Numbering Plan (NANP) is used, which consists of an area code, an office code, and a station code. Area codes are assigned geographically, office codes are assigned to specific switches, and station codes identify specific ports on each switch. The format in North America is 1Nxx-Nxx-xxxx, with N = digits 2 through 9 and x = digits 0 through 9. Internationally, each country is assigned a one- to three-digit country code; the country's dialing plan follows the country code.

In corporate environments, VoIP can be configured to recognize extension numbers and expand them into their full E.164 (international public telecommunications numbering plan) dialed numbers by using two commands in tandem: destination-pattern and num-exp. Before you configure these two commands, map individual telephone extensions with their full E.164 dialed numbers. You can do this easily by creating a number expansion table.

For Cisco voice implementations, three types of dial peers are used to match a dialed number to either a local telephony port or a remote IP address:

    Router(config)# dial-peer voice 401 pots
    
    Router(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 14085553737
    
    Router(config-dial-peer)# port 0/0
    
     
    
The destination-pattern command defines the telephone number associated with the POTS dial peer. The port command associates the POTS dial peer with a specific logical dial interface, normally the voice port connecting your router to the local POTS network.

    Router(config)# dial-peer voice 501 voip
    
    Router(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 1919555....
    
    Router(config-dial-peer)# session target ipv4:192.168.11.3
    
     
    
The destination-pattern command defines the telephone number associated with the VoIP dial peer. The session target command specifies a destination IP address for the VoIP dial peer.

    Router(config)# dial-peer voice 601 vofr
    
    Router(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 14087677448
    
    Router(config-dial-peer)# session target serial 0/0 100
    
     
    
The destination-pattern command defines the telephone number associated with the VoFR dial peer. The session target command specifies a destination DLCI for the VoFR dial peer.

Use the dial-peer voice command to define dial peers and to change to dial peer configuration mode. For examples, see the "Configuring FXS Interfaces" section, the "Configuring FXO Interfaces" section, and the "Configuring E&M Interfaces" section.

Wildcards and Number Expansion

Office PBXs are configured so that a user can dial a local call (within the same PBX) by dialing the extension only—for instance, the four-digit extension 3737, or the five-digit extension 53737—rather than dialing the full telephone number, 1 408 555-3737.

You can provide the same shortcut on a VoIP network by using the number-expansion (num-exp) command.

Router(config)# num-exp 5.... 1408555....

 

This command tells the router to expand a particular sequence of dialed numbers into a complete telephone number (destination pattern) as shown in Table 1.


Table 1: Sample Number Expansion Table
Extension Destination Pattern Num-Exp Command Entry Description

3737

14085553737

num-exp 3737 14085553737

To expand 3737 to 14085553737

....

1408555....

num-exp .... 1408555....

To expand any dialed sequence of four digits (represented by four periods) by prefixing 1408555 to it

5....

1408555....

num-exp 5.... 1408555....

To expand a five-digit extension beginning with the numeral 5 by prefixing 140855 to it

You can use a period (.) as a wildcard character representing a single digit in a telephone number.

You can use the show num-exp command to verify the number expansion information.

Router# show num-exp [dialed-number]
 

After you have configured dial peers and assigned destination patterns to them, you can use the show dialplan number command to see how a telephone number maps to a dial peer.

Router# show dialplan number [dialed-number]

Note   You must still configure each telephone number in full on a local dial peer so that the router can find the voice port to which it belongs.

Configuring Voice Interface Cards

The router supports one to four Cisco VICs. Each VIC provides two ports. You need one VIC port for each voice connection.


Note   To transmit voice calls over an IP WAN, you need (in addition to the VICs) at least one WIC in the router to provide the connection to the WAN.

There are five types of VIC interfaces:

Figure 12 shows a typical VIC.


Figure 12: Voice Interface Card


You should install and cable the VICs before you perform the software configuration tasks that follow.

Configuring FXS Interfaces

This section explains how to configure ports on FXS VICs that connect directly to a standard telephone, a fax machine, or a similar device.

Figure 13 shows a basic voice network. A small business uses a Cisco 1760 router (named West) to provide telephone and fax connections among employees in its office. Two of these telephones are connected to an FXS VIC port in the West router.


Figure 13: Basic Voice Network (West Router)



Note   You can name your router by using the global configuration hostname command.

Table 2 lists telephone numbers and voice ports for the West router. (For information about port numbering, see the "Voice Port Verification" section.)


Table 2: West Router Telephone Numbers and Voice Ports
Telephone Number Voice Port

408 555-3737

0/0

408 555-4141

0/1


Note   If your router is configured with four 2-port VICs, you can connect a total of eight telephones and fax machines to it. As the router has only four slots, you need to replace one VIC with a WIC to provide an interface for IP connectivity to the WAN and for data traffic. To accommodate more voice devices, you need to add more routers or use an E&M VIC and a local PBX, rather than connecting every telephone to its own FXS VIC.

Local Dial Peers

To route a received voice call to the right destination, the router needs to know which telephone number belongs to each voice port. For instance, if a call comes in for 408 555-3737, the router needs to know that this telephone is connected to voice port 0/0 (as shown in Figure 13). In other words, the router needs to know the information in Table 2.

To hold this information, Cisco IOS software uses objects called dial peers. A telephone number, a voice port, and other call parameters are tied together by associating them all with the same dial peer. Configuring dial peers is similar to configuring static IP routes—you are telling the router what path to follow to route the call. All voice technologies use dial peers to define the characteristics associated with a call leg. A call leg is a segment of a call path, for instance, between a telephone and a router, a router and a network, a router and a PBX, or a router and the PSTN. Each call leg corresponds to a dial peer.

Dial peers are identified by numbers, but they are usually referred to as tags to avoid confusion with telephone numbers. Dial-peer tags are arbitrary integers that can range from 1 to 231 - 1 (2147483647). Within the allowed range, you can choose any dial-peer tag that is convenient or that makes sense to you. Dial peers on the same router must have unique tags, but you can reuse the tags on other routers.

Table 3 assigns a dial-peer tag to each telephone number and its associated voice port on the West router. This type of dial peer is called a POTS dial peer or a local dial peer. The term POTS (plain old telephone service) means that the dial peer associates a physical voice port with a local telephone device. (Voice over IP, or VoIP, dial peers are explained in the "Calling Between Routers" section.)


Table 3: West Router Local Dial Peers
Telephone Number Voice Port Dial-Peer Tag

408 555-3737

0/0

401

408 555-4141

0/1

402

You should construct a table similar to Table 3 for your own routers, assigning your own telephone numbers and dial-peer tags.


Note   The telephone numbers used in this guide are only examples and are invalid for public use in the United States. When you configure your network, be sure to substitute your own telephone numbers.

To configure the router with the dial-peer information in Table 3, enter the following global configuration commands:

West> enable

Password:
West# configure terminal

West(config)# dial-peer voice 401 pots

West(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 14085553737

West(config-dial-peer)# port 0/0

West(config)# dial-peer voice 402 pots

West(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 14085554141

West(config-dial-peer)# port 0/1

West(config-dial-peer)# exit

West(config)# 
 

These commands are summarized in Figure 14.


Figure 14: West Router Configured for Local Dial Peers


The dial-peer command always takes the argument voice. The number following it is the dial-peer tag, and pots is the type of dial peer.

Cisco IOS software refers to a telephone number as a destination pattern because it is the destination for an incoming or outgoing call. Enter these numbers with the destination-pattern command. A destination pattern can include asterisks (*) and pound signs (#) from the telephone keypad, and commas (,) and periods (.), which have special meanings. Parentheses ( () ), hyphens (-), slashes (/), and spaces ( ), which are often used to make telephone numbers easier for humans to read, are not allowed.

Notice that the commands in the examples puts the prefix 1 (used in the United States to indicate a long-distance number) and an area code in front of the remaining numbers to complete the destination pattern. You need to include similar codes for your country if the VoIP equipment needs to establish a connection to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).


Note   The Cisco IOS software does not check the validity of the telephone number. It accepts any string of permitted characters as a valid number.

The business that owns the West router also has a branch office, called East. Figure 15 shows the East office network, and Table 4 lists the phone numbers, voice ports, and dial-peer tags for this office.


Figure 15: Basic Voice Network (East Router)



Table 4: East Router Local Dial Peers
Telephone Number Destination Pattern Voice Port Dial-Peer Tag

919 555-8282

19195558282

1/0

901

919 555-9595

19195559595

1/1

902

Enter the following commands to configure the local ports on the East router with the dial-peer information in Table 4:

East(config)# dial-peer voice 901 pots

East(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 19195558282

East(config-dial-peer)# port 1/0

East(config)# dial-peer voice 902 pots

East(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 19195559595

East(config-dial-peer)# port 1/1

East(config-dial-peer)# exit

East(config)# 
 

These commands are summarized in Figure 16.


Figure 16: East Router Configured for Local Dial Peers


Checking the Configuration

If you configured POTS dial peers on your router by following these examples, you can place calls between telephones connected to the same router. You can also use the show dial-peer voice command to verify that the data that you configured is correct.


Note   If the voice port is off line, use the interface configuration no shutdown command at the config-voice-port prompt to enable it.


Note   Although placing calls directly between ports on the same router helps to verify your configuration, it is not recommended for general telecommunications use.

Calling Between Routers

To enable the West and East offices to send voice traffic to each other over the same IP network they use for data traffic, use a WIC on each router to provide a connection to the IP network, as shown in Figure 17.


Figure 17: IP Connection Between Routers


Look at the connection between the West router and the IP network. This connection does not include a voice port or an attached telephone—it leads from a WAN interface to a remote destination somewhere on the IP network. IP routers can locate IP addresses on the network, but they cannot locate telephone numbers. To route an outgoing voice call over this connection, the West router must associate a telephone number in the East office with the IP address of the East router.

Table 5 assigns a dial-peer tag to each telephone number and its associated IP address on the West router. This type of dial peer is called a remote dial peer or VoIP dial peer. (Remember, the dial-peer tags are arbitrary.) A VoIP dial peer associates a telephone number with an IP address.


Table 5: West Router Remote Dial Peers
Remote Location Telephone Number Destination Pattern IP Address Dial-Peer Tag

East

919 555-8282

19195558282

192.168.11.3

501

East

919 555-9595

19195559595

192.168.11.3

502

You can create a VoIP dial peer on the West router for every telephone on the East router, all associated with the same IP address. But it is much easier to use periods as wildcards, as shown in Table 6.


Table 6: West Router Remote Dial Peers with Wildcards
Remote Location Telephone Number Destination Pattern IP Address Dial-Peer Tag

East

919 555-xxxx

1919555....

192.168.11.3

501

Construct a table similar to Table 6 for your own routers, assigning your own telephone numbers, IP addresses, and dial-peer tags.


Note   The IP addresses shown in this guide are meant only as examples. When you configure your network, be sure to use your own IP addresses.

Enter the following information on the West router to create the dial-peer configuration given in Table 6:

West(config)# dial-peer voice 501 voip

West(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 1919555....

West(config-dial-peer)# session target ipv4:192.168.11.3

 

Cisco IOS software describes the remote network as the session target. This command is followed by the IP address of the remote router. The prefix ipv4 means IP version 4. Alternatively, you can use the prefix dns followed by the Domain Name System (DNS) name, as follows:

West(config-dial-peer)# session target dns:voice.eastrouter.com

 

Configure a dial peer on each router for each telephone number on every other router connected to it.

You can simplify this process by configuring number expansion for East router telephone numbers on the West router:

West(config)# num-exp 5.... 1919555....

 

Now users can dial a five-digit extension beginning with 5 from a telephone on the West router to reach a telephone on the East router.

These commands are summarized in Figure 18.


Figure 18: West Router Configured for Remote Dial Peers


The West router is now configured to send calls to the East router.

Table 7 shows how to configure the East router to send calls to the West router.


Table 7: East Router Remote Dial Peers with Wildcards
Remote Location Telephone Number IP Address Dial-Peer Tag

West

408 555-xxxx

192.168.19.27

801

Enter the following information on the East router to create the dial-peer configuration given in Table 7:

East(config)# num-exp 5.... 1408555....

East(config)# dial-peer voice 801 voip

East(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 1408555....

East(config-dial-peer)# session target ipv4:192.168.19.27

 

These commands are summarized in Figure 19.


Figure 19: East Router Configured for Remote Dial Peers


Other Routers on the Network

If the path between the endpoints of a voice call travels through intermediate routers, configure those routers for VoIP traffic, as described in the "Configuring FXS Interfaces" section.

You need to configure POTS or VoIP dial peers on an intermediate router only if that router also has voice devices attached to it.

Checking the Configuration

If you configured VoIP dial peers on your router by following these examples, you can place calls from that router to telephones on the remote routers (using just the extension if you configured number expansion). If you have trouble placing calls, ping the remote router to make sure you have IP connectivity, or use the show dial-peer voice command to verify that the data you configured is correct.


Note   See the "Configuring Quality of Service" section if you need to improve the quality of voice connections.

Configuring FXO Interfaces

FXO interfaces provide a gateway from the VoIP network to the analog PSTN or to a PBX that does not support E&M signaling so that users can reach telephones and fax machines outside the VoIP network. Figure 20 shows a typical FXO gateway attached to the West router.


Figure 20: FXO Gateway to PSTN


To create a POTS dial peer for an FXS interface as explained earlier, you enter the complete telephone number of the attached telephone as the destination pattern for incoming calls. However, to create a POTS dial peer for an FXO interface, the destination pattern refers to outgoing calls, and you can include wildcards in it because the PSTN performs the switching.

The VoIP feature can also remove digits that you do not want to send to the PSTN. For instance, to dial 9 to reach an outside line (that is, the analog PSTN), enter the following commands:

West> enable

Password:
West# configure terminal

West(config)# dial-peer voice 201 pots

West(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 9

West(config-dial-peer)# port 1/0

 

When you dial 9, the router makes a connection to the PSTN through voice port 1/0. The PSTN then provides a dial tone. Any digits you enter on the telephone thereafter are interpreted on the PSTN.

To enable East router users to make calls over the West router local PSTN, enter the following commands:

East(config)# dial-peer voice 701 voip

East(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 7

East(config-dial-peer)# session target ipv4:192.168.19.27

 
West(config)# dial-peer voice 601 pots

West(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 7

West(config-dial-peer)# port 1/0

 

When you dial 7 on the East router, the call is connected to the PSTN on the West router. The PSTN then provides a dial tone, and any digits you enter on the telephone thereafter are interpreted on the PSTN.


Note   In this example, West router voice port 1/0 has two separate POTS dial peers associated with it. Dial peer 201 matches calls beginning with the digit 9 and handles PSTN calls originating from the West router. Dial peer 601 matches calls beginning with the digit 7 and handles calls to the PSTN originating from the East router.

Checking the Configuration

If you configured your FXO interface according to the example described in the "Configuring FXO Interfaces" section, you can place outgoing calls over the PSTN. If you have trouble placing calls, use the show voice port command to make sure that the VIC is installed correctly. Use the show dial-peer voice command to make sure that the data you configured is correct, and test the PSTN by connecting a handset directly to the PSTN outlet and placing a call.


Note   See the "Configuring Quality of Service" section if you need to improve the quality of voice connections.

Configuring E&M Interfaces

If you have more than a few voice users at each location, the cost of voice ports and routers and the effort needed to configure dial peers for all the combinations of origins and destinations increases rapidly. In this situation, it might be more efficient to use a PBX at each location to switch local traffic and direct incoming calls and then use E&M VICs to connect the PBXs over an IP network.

Figure 21 shows a company with two offices, West and East. Each office has a PBX to operate its internal telephone network, and the IP network carries voice traffic between the offices. Each PBX connects to an E&M VIC port in the router.


Figure 21: Linking PBXs over the IP Network (Local Dial Peers)


To configure E&M voice ports, use the following commands beginning in privileged EXEC mode.

Command Task

Step 1 

dial-type {dtmf | pulse}

Select the appropriate dial type for out-dialing.

Step 2 

signal {wink-start | immediate | delay-dial}

Select the appropriate signal type for this interface.

Step 3 

cptone {australia | brazil | china | finland | france | germany | japan | northamerica | unitedkingdom}

Select the appropriate voice call progress tone for this interface.

Step 4 

operation {2-wire | 4-wire}

Select the appropriate cabling scheme for this voice port.

Step 5 

type {1 | 2 | 3 | 5}

Select the appropriate E&M interface type.

Both PBXs in the example shown in Figure 21 use E&M interface Type 2, with four-wire operation and immediate-start signaling. The values for your configuration depend on your PBX and are available from your telecommunications department or the PBX manufacturer. For more information about E&M interface configuration commands, refer to the "VoIP Commands" chapter of the Cisco 1751 Router Software Configuration Guide.

In this example, West users can dial 5 and a four-digit extension to reach telephones in the East office. East users can dial 5 and a four-digit extension to reach telephones in the West office.

The West router connects to the PBX through an E&M VIC port 0/0. This port is associated with a POTS dial peer for incoming calls. But you no longer need to associate every telephone number with its own port. Instead, you can configure a local dial peer as if all the West telephones (represented by a wildcard destination pattern) are connected directly to this port, as shown in the following commands:

West> enable

Password:
West# configure terminal

West(config)# dial-peer voice 111 pots

West(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 1408555....

West(config-dial-peer)# port 0/0

 

Configure VoIP dial peers for outgoing calls and associate destination phone numbers on the East router with that router IP address, as shown in Figure 22, and in the following commands:

West(config)# dial-peer voice 121 voip

West(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 1919555....

West(config-dial-peer)# session target ipv4:192.168.11.3

West(config-dial-peer)# exit

West(config)# 
 

Figure 22: Linking PBXs over the IP Network (Remote Dial Peers)


Now configure number expansion so that numbers beginning with 5 (belonging to the East office) and sent by the West PBX to the West router are expanded into the full destination pattern:

West(config)# num-exp 5.... 1919555....

 

Note   You do not need to configure number expansion for calls from one West telephone to another West telephone because the PBX switches those calls.

Finally, enter the following global configuration voice-port command to configure the E&M port:

West(config)# voice-port 0/0

West(config-voice-port)# signal immediate

West(config-voice-port)# operation 4-wire

West(config-voice-port)# type 2

West(config-voice-port)# shut

West(config-voice-port)# no shut


Note   For these commands to take effect, you have to cycle the port by using the shutdown and no shutdown commands.


Note   Configure the PBX to pass all dual-tone multifrequency (DTMF) signals to the router.

Configure the East router similar to the West router. The East router connects to the PBX through an E&M VIC port 0/1. Enter the following commands to configure a POTS dial peer for all East telephones:

East(config)# dial-peer voice 211 pots

East(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 1919555....

East(config-dial-peer)# port 0/1

 

Enter the following commands to configure a VoIP dial peer for telephones on the West router:

East(config)# dial-peer voice 221 voip

East(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 1408555....

East(config-dial-peer)# session target ipv4:192.168.19.27

East(config-dial-peer)# exit

East(config)# 
 

Enter the following command to configure number expansion and to make it easy for East users to dial numbers on the West router:

West(config)# num-exp 5.... 1408555....

 

Finally, configure the E&M port:

East(config)# voice-port 0/1

East(config-voice-port)# signal immediate

East(config-voice-port)# operation 4-wire

East(config-voice-port)# type 2

East(config-voice-port)# shut

East(config-voice-port)# no shut

Checking the Configuration

If you configured the E&M interfaces correctly, you can place calls from a telephone served by one PBX to a telephone served by the other PBX (using just the extension, if you configured number expansion). If you have trouble placing calls, ping the remote router to make sure you have IP connectivity.


Note   See the "Configuring Quality of Service" section if you need to improve the quality of voice connections.

Configuring ISDN BRI NT/TE Interfaces

The ISDN BRI VIC provides digital connectivity for VoIP networks using the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Net3 switch type. The BRI VIC presents an ISDN S/T physical interface that connects to a network termination (NT) or terminal equipment (TE) device. With the ISDN BRI VIC, you can connect the Cisco 1760 router to a PBX network in NT or TE mode, or to a PSTN in TE mode.

Each of the two BRI ports can operate in NT mode as the clock source or in TE mode as a clock slave. For example:

Figure 23 shows an example of a network using ISDN BRI voice interfaces.


Figure 23: A Network Using ISDN BRI Voice Interfaces


Configuring the BRI Layer 1

At the BRI Layer 1, you can configure each port of the VIC to operate in NT (clock source) or TE (clock slave) mode by using the IOS isdn layer1-emulate command in interface configuration mode:

isdn layer1-emulate {network | user}

where network enables the VIC to operate in the NT mode, and user enables it to operate in the TE mode. The default setting for each port is the TE mode.

Configuring the ISDN Protocol

Depending on your ISDN switch type, the Layer 2 protocol may be configured to operate in NT or TE mode. To do this, use the isdn protocol-emulate command in interface configuration mode:

isdn protocol-emulate {network | user}

where network enables the ISDN Layer 2 to operate in the NT mode, and user enables it to operate in the TE mode. The default setting is the TE mode.


Note   The configurations of Layer 1 and Layer 2 are independent of each other. For example, you can set the Layer 1 operating mode to NT and set the Layer 2 to TE.

Turning the Line Power On/Off

To control the line power (phantom power only) being supplied to a connected device, use the line_power command in interface configuration mode:

line_power

no line_power

The line_power and no line_power commands are valid only for a BRI port operating in NT mode. If a port is equipped with hardware to supply line power, using these commands will activate or deactivate line power provision from that port.

Setting the Network Clock Priority

If a port is operating in TE mode, you can set the clock priority for that port. The clock priority determines whether the external clock on the ISDN line or the internal clock on the system board takes control. To change the clock priority, use the network-clock-priority command in interface configuration mode:

network-clock-priority {high | low}

where high enables the external clock, and low enables the internal clock to drive the VIC. By default, the clock priority is set to high.


Note   If the VIC loses its external clock source, as when the ISDN line is down, the internal clock source takes over until the external clock is functioning again.

Configuration Example

To configure each BRI interface, follow these steps, starting in privileged user mode.


Note   Before you configure each port on the VIC, verify that the BRI interface has shut down and that the cable to the connected device is properly installed for the operating mode of the interface that you plan to configure.

Command Description

Step 1 

router# configure terminal

Enter the global configuration mode.

Step 2 

router(config)# isdn switch-type basic-net3

Specify the ISDN switch type.


    Note   The only switch type supported is the basic-net3.

Step 3 

router(config)# interface bri 0/0

Change to interface configuration mode for port 0 in slot 0.

Step 4 

router(config-if)# no ip address

Specify that there is no IP address for this interface.

Step 5 

router(config-if)# isdn incoming-voice
{voice | modem | data}

Configure this port for incoming calls.

Step 6 

router(config-if)# shutdown

router(config-if)# isdn layer1-emulate {user | network}

router(config-if)# no shutdown

Shut down the interface. Then configure the Layer 1 port mode and clock settings:

  • Enter user to configure the port as TE, to function as a clock slave. This is the default.

  • Enter network to configure the port as NT, to function as a clock master.

Activate the interface after you configure the port.

Step 7 

router(config-if)# network-clock-priority {low | high}

(Optional only for TE-configured ports.) To change the setting for clock source priority:

  • Set to high to use the external clock on the ISDN line to drive the VIC. This is the default.

  • Set to low to use the internal clock on the VIC.

Step 8 

router(config-if)# line-power

(Optional only for NT-configured ports). Turn on the power supplied from the port to a TE device.

Step 9 

router(config-if)# isdn protocol-emulate {user | network}

Configure the Layer 2 port protocol emulation:

  • Enter user to configure the port as TE so that the PBX is the master. This is the default.

  • Enter network to configure the port as NT so that the PBX is the slave.

Step 10 

router(config-if)# end

Exit configuration mode.

Debugging Commands

Use the following commands to debug your configuration:

For more information about these commands, see the IOS documentation.

Configuring DID Interfaces

DID enables external callers to direct-dial an internal extension on your PBX, without operator assistance. This service makes use of DID trunks provided by the local central office (CO), which forward only the last three to five digits of a phone number to your PBX. If, for example, a company has a PBX with extensions 555-1000 through 555-1999, and an external caller dials 555-1234, the local CO forwards 234 to the PBX. The PBX then rings extension 234.

When this feature is configured, a voice-enabled Cisco router can receive calls from a DID trunk and connect them to the appropriate extensions.

The DID feature makes it seem that all extensions on a PBX have direct lines to the PSTN. This is accomplished without the expense associated with connecting each extension to the PSTN. Besides saving the cost of an operator, DID lets callers feel that they are calling specific individuals, rather than calling a large company.

Figure 24 shows a hypothetical topology in which a user connected to the PSTN (User A) dials various numbers; this user is then connected to the appropriate extensions on a PBX.


Figure 24: DID Support for Cisco 1760 Routers


Number Dialed by User A Number Received by Router Extension Receiving Call

555-1234

234

User C

555-1345

345

User D

555-1456

456

User B

555-1678

678

No dial-peer match found; fast busy tone is played

Prerequisites

The following actions are required to support DID:

Configuring a Voice Port to Support DID

To configure a DID voice port, you need to use the following command.
Command Task

signal did{wink-start | immediate | delay-dial}

Select the appropriate signal type for this interface. The default signal type is immediate.

As an example, the port can be configured as shown in the following commands:

Router# configure terminal

Router(config)# voice-port 1/0
West(config-voice-port)# signal did wink-start

 
Verifying DID Voice Port Configuration

To verify voice-port configuration, enter the show voice port command. You can specify a voice port or view the status of all configured voice ports. In the following example, the specified port is configured for DID.

Router# show voice port 1/0
Foreign Exchange Station with Direct Inward Dialing (FXS-DID) 1/0 Slot is 1,
Port is 0 Type of VoicePort is DID-IN Operation State is DORMANT Administrative State is UP No Interface Down Failure Description is not set Noise Regeneration is enabled Non Linear Processing is enabled Music On Hold Threshold is Set to -38 dBm In Gain is Set to 0 dB Out Attenuation is Set to 0 dB Echo Cancellation is enabled Echo Cancel Coverage is set to 8 ms Playout-delay Mode is set to default Playout-delay Nominal is set to 60 ms Playout-delay Maximum is set to 200 ms Playout-delay Minimum mode is set to default, value 4 ms Playout-delay Fax is set to 300 ms Connection Mode is normal Connection Number is not set Initial Time Out is set to 10 s Interdigit Time Out is set to 10 s Call Disconnect Time Out is set to 3 s Ringing Time Out is set to 180 s Wait Release Time Out is set to 3 s Companding Type is u-law Region Tone is set for US Analog Info Follows: Currently processing none Maintenance Mode Set to None (not in mtc mode) Number of signaling protocol errors are 0 Impedance is set to 600r Ohm Station name Chalil Mohanan, Station number 1234567 Voice card specific Info Follows: Signal Type is wink-start Dial Type is dtmf In Seizure is inactive Out Seizure is inactive Digit Duration Timing is set to 100 ms InterDigit Duration Timing is set to 100 ms Pulse Rate Timing is set to 10 pulses/second InterDigit Pulse Duration Timing is set to 750 ms Clear Wait Duration Timing is set to 400 ms Wink Wait Duration Timing is set to 200 ms Wait Wink Duration Timing is set to 550 ms Wink Duration Timing is set to 200 ms Delay Start Timing is set to 300 ms Delay Duration Timing is set to 2000 ms Dial Pulse Min. Delay is set to 140 ms Percent Break of Pulse is 60 percent Auto Cut-through is disabled Dialout Delay for immediate start is 300 ms

Configuring Quality of Service

The sections that follow provide an overview and brief explanations of Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms. To ensure the best QoS, you will need to configure various QoS mechanisms together. The examples in the following sections are given only to illustrate various QoS concepts. To configure your router, please use the guidelines, commands and example configurations that are given in the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide, Release 12.2 or later.

Voice traffic is much more sensitive to timing variations than data traffic. For good voice performance, you need to configure your data network so that voice packets are not lost or delayed. To achieve the level of network performance needed for VoIP connections, use the following features to improve QoS:

Cisco IOS software provides many other tools for ensuring QoS, such as custom queuing, priority queuing, and weighted fair queuing. For further information and more detailed examples of QoS configuration, refer to the "Congestion Management" chapter in the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide, Release 12.2 or later.


Note   QoS measures the level of network performance. It does not directly measure the quality of the voice signal.

Configuring VoIP on a Frame Relay link involves special considerations. See the "Frame Relay Configuration for VoIP" section.

On a relatively low-bandwidth connection, such as a PPP or High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) serial link, you should consider using methods to ensure QoS. If you have a high-bandwidth network, such as Ethernet or Fast Ethernet, and voice and data traffic together occupy only a small fraction of the bandwidth available, you might not need to provide QoS mechanisms. (See Figure 25.)


Figure 25: Bandwidth Versus Quality of Service


IP Precedence

Use the ip precedence command to give voice packets a higher priority than other IP data traffic. Every IP packet is given a precedence level: the numbers 1 through 5 identify classes for IP flows; the numbers 6 through 7 are used for network and backbone routing and updates. You can configure voice packets for higher priority by setting the IP precedence value to 5. Internal routers using weighted fair queuing give these packets priority. This command applies only to VoIP dial peers. The following example sets the IP precedence to 5:

Router> enable

Password:
Router# configure terminal

Router(config)# dial-peer voice 221 voip

Router(config-dial-peer)# ip precedence 5

 

Use the ip precedence command if RSVP is not enabled and if you would like to give voice packets a higher priority than other IP data traffic.

Low Latency Queuing

Low latency queuing (LLQ) provides a low-latency, strict-priority transmit queue for real-time traffic, such as VoIP traffic. Strict-priority queuing allows delay-sensitive data such as voice to be dequeued and sent first (before packets in other queues are dequeued), giving delay-sensitive data preferential treatment over other traffic. This reduces jitter in voice conversations.

Configuring LLQ

Ensure that the voice and data packets have different IP precedence values. This will allow the router to differentiate between them. Normally, data packets should have an IP precedence of 0, while voice packets should have an IP precedence of 5. If the VoIP packets are generated from within the router, you may set IP precedence to 5 for these packets by using the procedure in the "IP Precedence" section.

Create an access list and a class map for the voice packets.

Router(config)# access-list 101 permit ip any any precedence 5

Router(config)# class-map match-all voice

 

Link the class map to the access list.

Router(config-cmap)# match access-group 101

 

Configure LLQ for voice traffic by creating a policy map and defining its class.

Router(config)# policymap mypolicy

Router(config-pmap)# class voice

 

Assign priority bandwidth to the voice traffic. The priority bandwidth assigned (in kilobits per second) depends on the codec used and the number of simultaneous calls allowed.

Router(config-pmap-c)# priority 200

 

Attach LLQ to the dialer interface, and create a service policy.

Router(config)# interface dialer 1

Router(config-if)# service-policy out mypolicy

Multilink PPP with Link Fragmentation Interleave

Multilink PPP with link fragmentation interleave (MLPPP with LFI) allows large packets to be multilink-encapsulated and fragmented into smaller packets, thus ensuring that voice packets are transmitted without delay; small real-time packets, which are not multilink-encapsulated, are transmitted between fragments of the large packets. The interleaving feature also provides a special transmit queue for the smaller, delay-sensitive packets, enabling them to be transmitted earlier than other flows.

You should configure MLPPP with LFI if you have a dialer, an ISDN PRI or BRI interface, or a virtual template, and either of the following:

Configuring MLPPP with LFI

To configure MLPPP with LFI on a dialer, ISDN PRI or ISDN BRI interface, or a virtual template, you must first configure MLPPP with LFI on the interface or template by entering the following commands while in interface configuration mode:

Router(config-if)# encapsulation ppp

Router(config-if)# ppp multilink

Router(config-if)# ppp multilink interleave

 

Optionally, configure a maximum fragment delay:

Router(config-if)# ppp multilink fragment-delay milliseconds

 

You can also reserve a special queue for real-time packet flows to specified destination User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports, allowing real-time traffic to have higher priority than other flows. You need the following command only if you have not configured RSVP:

Router(config-if)# ip rtp reserve lowest-UDP-port range-of-ports
 

For virtual templates only, apply the virtual template to the multilink bundle:

Router(config-if)# multilink virtual-template 1

 

To create a virtual template interface, enter the following interface virtual-template global configuration command:

Router(config)# interface virtual-template 1

Real-Time Transport Protocol Header Compression

Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) header compression on a PPP, HDLC, or similar serial interface compresses the packet header to reduce network overhead.

You should configure RTP header compression on a serial interface if you have either of the following:

Configuring RTP Header Compression

Enable RTP header compression at both ends of the serial link by entering the ip rtp header-compression interface configuration command:

Router(config-if)# ip rtp header-compression

 

Note   When you enter the show running-config command, the format of the ip rtp header-compression command changes to ip rtp header-compression iphc-format.

Frame Relay Configuration for VoIP

Configuring VoIP on a Frame Relay link involves certain special considerations to ensure acceptable voice quality. For Frame Relay links with slow output rates (64 kbps or less) and with data and voice being transmitted over the same permanent virtual circuit (PVC), you should configure the following parameters:

The following example configures an MTU size of 300 bytes over serial interface 0/0:

    Router# interface serial 0/0
    
    Router(config-if)# mtu 300
    
     
    
The following example configures RSVP over serial subinterface 0/0.1:

    Router(config-if)# interface serial 0/0.1 point-to-point
    
    Router(config-if)# ip address 192.168.19.0 255.0.0.0
    
    Router(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 48 48
    
     
    
The following command configures RTP header compression on the selected subinterface:

    Router(config-if)# frame-relay ip rtp header-compression
    
     
    
The following command configures generic traffic shaping with a CIR of 32000 bps:

    Router(config-if)# traffic-shape rate 32000
    
     
    

For further information and more detailed examples of Frame Relay configuration, refer to the Cisco 1751 Router Voice-over-IP Configuration Guide.

Obtaining Documentation

The following sections explain how to obtain documentation from Cisco Systems.

World Wide Web

You can access the most current Cisco documentation on the World Wide Web at the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com

Translated documentation is available at the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/public/countries_languages.shtml

Documentation CD-ROM

Cisco documentation and additional literature are available in a Cisco Documentation CD-ROM package, which is shipped with your product. The Documentation CD-ROM is updated monthly and may be more current than printed documentation. The CD-ROM package is available as a single unit or through an annual subscription.

Ordering Documentation

Cisco documentation is available in the following ways:

http://www.cisco.com/cgi-bin/order/order_root.pl

http://www.cisco.com/go/subscription

Documentation Feedback

If you are reading Cisco product documentation on Cisco.com, you can submit technical comments electronically. Click Feedback at the top of the Cisco Documentation home page. After you complete the form, print it out and fax it to Cisco at 408 527-0730.

You can e-mail your comments to bug-doc@cisco.com.

To submit your comments by mail, use the response card behind the front cover of your document, or write to the following address:

Cisco Systems
Attn: Document Resource Connection
170 West Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134-9883

We appreciate your comments.

Obtaining Technical Assistance

Cisco provides Cisco.com as a starting point for all technical assistance. Customers and partners can obtain documentation, troubleshooting tips, and sample configurations from online tools by using the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) Web Site. Cisco.com registered users have complete access to the technical support resources on the Cisco TAC Web Site.

Cisco.com

Cisco.com is the foundation of a suite of interactive, networked services that provides immediate, open access to Cisco information, networking solutions, services, programs, and resources at any time, from anywhere in the world.

Cisco.com is a highly integrated Internet application and a powerful, easy-to-use tool that provides a broad range of features and services to help you to

You can self-register on Cisco.com to obtain customized information and service. To access Cisco.com, go to the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com

Technical Assistance Center

The Cisco TAC is available to all customers who need technical assistance with a Cisco product, technology, or solution. Two types of support are available through the Cisco TAC: the Cisco TAC Web Site and the Cisco TAC Escalation Center.

Inquiries to Cisco TAC are categorized according to the urgency of the issue:

Which Cisco TAC resource you choose is based on the priority of the problem and the conditions of service contracts, when applicable.

Cisco TAC Web Site

The Cisco TAC Web Site allows you to resolve P3 and P4 issues yourself, saving both cost and time. The site provides around-the-clock access to online tools, knowledge bases, and software. To access the Cisco TAC Web Site, go to the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/tac

All customers, partners, and resellers who have a valid Cisco services contract have complete access to the technical support resources on the Cisco TAC Web Site. The Cisco TAC Web Site requires a Cisco.com login ID and password. If you have a valid service contract but do not have a login ID or password, go to the following URL to register:

http://www.cisco.com/register/

If you cannot resolve your technical issues by using the Cisco TAC Web Site, and you are a Cisco.com registered user, you can open a case online by using the TAC Case Open tool at the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/tac/caseopen

If you have Internet access, it is recommended that you open P3 and P4 cases through the Cisco TAC Web Site.

Cisco TAC Escalation Center

The Cisco TAC Escalation Center addresses issues that are classified as priority level 1 or priority level 2; these classifications are assigned when severe network degradation significantly impacts business operations. When you contact the TAC Escalation Center with a P1 or P2 problem, a Cisco TAC engineer will automatically open a case.

To obtain a directory of toll-free Cisco TAC telephone numbers for your country, go to the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml

Before calling, please check with your network operations center to determine the level of Cisco support services to which your company is entitled; for example, SMARTnet, SMARTnet Onsite, or Network Supported Accounts (NSA). In addition, please have available your service agreement number and your product serial number.



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